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        東北師范大學網教物理學專業介紹
        文/ 日期:2015年03月15日

          物理學是研究物質運動最一般規律和物質基本結構的學科。作為自然科學的帶頭學科,物理學研究大至宇宙,小至基本粒子等一切物質最基本的運動形式和規律,因此成為其他各自然科學學科的研究基礎。它的理論結構充分地運用數學作為自己的工作語言,以實驗作為檢驗理論正確性的唯一標準,它是當今最精密的一門自然科學學科。


          物理學研究的領域可分為下列四大方面:


          1.凝聚態物理——研究物質宏觀性質,這些物相內包含極大數目的組元,且組員間相互作用極強。最熟悉的凝聚態相是固體和液體,它們由原子間的鍵和電磁力所形成。更多的凝聚態相包括超流和波色-愛因斯坦凝聚態(在十分低溫時,某些原子系統內發現);某些材料中導電電子呈現的超導相;原子點陣中出現的鐵磁和反鐵磁相。凝聚態物理一直是最大的的研究領域。歷史上,它由固體物理生長出來。1967年由菲立普·安德森最早提出,采用此名。


          2.原子,分子和光學物理——研究原子尺寸或幾個原子結構范圍內,物質-物質和光-物質的相互作用。這三個領域是密切相關的。因為它們使用類似的方法和有關的能量標度。它們都包括經典和量子的處理方法;從微觀的角度處理問題。原子物理處理原子的殼層,集中在原子和離子的量子控制;冷卻和誘捕;低溫碰撞動力學;準確測量基本常數;電子在結構動力學方面的集體效應。原子物理受核的影晌。但如核分裂,核合成等核內部現象則屬高能物理。 分子物理集中在多原子結構以及它們,內外部和物質及光的相互作用,這里的光學物理只研究光的基本特性及光與物質在微觀領域的相互作用。


          3.高能/粒子物理——粒子物理研究物質和能量的基本組元及它們間的相互作用;也可稱為高能物理。因為許多基本粒子在自然界不存在,只在粒子加速器中與其它粒子高能碰撞下才出現。據基本粒子的相互作用標準模型描述,有12種已知物質的基本粒子模型(夸克和輕粒子)。它們通過強,弱和電磁基本力相互作用。標準模型還預言一種希格斯-波色粒子存在。現正尋找中。


          4.天體物理——天體物理和天文學是物理的理論和方法用到研究星體的結構和演變,太陽系的起源,以及宇宙的相關問題。因為天體物理的范圍寬。它用了物理的許多原理。包括力學,電磁學,統計力學,熱力學和量子力學。1931年卡爾發現了天體發出的無線電訊號。開始了無線電天文學。天文學的前沿已被空間探索所擴展。地球大氣的干擾使觀察空間需用紅外,超紫外,伽瑪射線和x-射線。物理宇宙論研究在宇宙的大范圍內宇宙的形成和演變。愛因斯坦的相對論在現代宇宙理論中起了中心的作用。20世紀早期哈勃從圖中發現了宇宙在膨脹,促進了宇宙的穩定狀態論和大爆炸之間的討論。1964年宇宙微波背景的發現,證明了大爆炸理論可能是正確的。大爆炸模型建立在二個理論框架上:愛因斯坦的廣義相對論和宇宙論原理。宇宙論已建立了ACDM宇宙演變模型;它包括宇宙的膨脹,黑能量和黑物質。 從費米伽瑪-射線望運鏡的新數據和現有宇宙模型的改進,可期待出現許多可能性和發現。尤其是今后數年內,圍繞黑物質方面可能有許多發現。


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